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H. J. B. Birks

Sylvia M. Peglar


Heather A. Austin

Botanical Institute, University of Bergen,
Allégaten 41, N-5007 Bergen,



The development of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) by
Cajo ter Braak in the mid 1980's and its implementation in his
computer program CANOCO (along with other constrained ordination
methods such as redundancy analysis (RDA), detrended canonical
correspondence analysis and hybrid methods) have revolutionised
quantitative community ecology and related subjects such as
limnology. CCA, RDA, etc incorporate regression and ordination
into a single extremely powerful method for multivariate direct
gradient analysis called canonical or constrained ordination.
Besides these direct gradient analysis techniques, CANOCO also
permits ‘partial’ analysis where the effects of external variables
are removed statistically, the statistical testing of the
relationship between response variables (usually species) and
external predictor variables by means of several different types
of Monte Carlo permutation tests, the reconstruction
(‘calibration’) of environmental variables (e.g. lake-water pH)
from biological data (e.g. fossil diatoms), statistical analysis
of multivariate data from field experiments, etc.

Our bibliography attempts to list all publications about canonical
correspondence analysis and its linear relative redundancy analysis
that have been published since Cajo ter Braak's original paper
on CCA in 1986. The bibliography covers the period 1986 to 1993.
We list 378 entries listed alphabetically by first author. Each
entry is numbered, and is indexed in terms of 107 topics that
serve as index entries for the bibliography, grouped into 3 main
groups. These are (1) Methods used (e.g. canonical correspondence
analysis, redundancy analysis, hybrid analysis, Monte Carlo
permutation tests), (2) Subject (e.g. algology, ecology, limnology,
marine biology, palaeolimnology), and (3) Organisms studied
(e.g. birds, diatoms, fungi, zooplankton). In addition, the
various topics that each publication covers are shown in brackets
after each reference. Reference is also given for one publication
using CCA that we have not seen. This bibliography thus lists a
total of 379 publications.

In the eight years since Cajo ter Braak first published about
CCA in 1986 and brought redundancy analysis (= constrained
principal components analysis) to people's attention, CCA, RDA,
and their close relatives have been used in very many different
subjects, not only in community ecology and biogeography, but
also in the study of ecological dynamics, ecological impacts,
ecological management, analysis of field experimental data,
conservation, limnology, palaeoecology, and palaeolimnology. After
community ecology (190 entries), limnology (86 entries) and
palaeolimnology (49 entries) are the subjects that most use CCA
or RDA (or at least get published!), followed by studies on
ecological impacts (37 entries), ecological dynamics (35 entries),
management (28 entries), and marine biology (25 entries).
Geographically the authors of the 379 publications show a not
unexpected concentration on the Netherlands, followed by Sweden,

Norway, Great Britain, Finland, Canada, and the USA. Australia
is barely represented.

Since the first bibliography by HJBB and HAA for the period
1986-1991, the main obvious developments are the increased use
of RDA in non-ecological studies, the greater use of Monte Carlo
permutation tests, and the use of partial CCA and DCCA.

We are grateful to the staff of the University of Bergen Library
for helping us obtain many publications not available locally,
to the Olaf Grolle Olsens Legat for financial support for the
publication of this bibliography, to John Anderson, John Line,
and Michael Palmer for some additional references, and to Cajo
ter Braak for much advice and help, many discussions about
canonical correspondence analysis, CANOCO, and their uses, and
for providing additional references.

A machine-readable copy of this bibliography is available as a
Word Perfect 5.1 file on diskette at nominal cost.

We would naturally be most grateful to readers who draw our
attention to any errors or omissions.

October 1994

H. J. B. Birks
Sylvia M. Peglar
Heather A. Austin

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